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How is a ground source heat pump installed

How we get heat from the ground 

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A ground source heat pump uses (mainly solar) heat stored in the ground.
There are a number of methods of extracting the heat from the ground.  The most common method is horizontal ground loops.  The amount of loops installed is dependent on the ground conditions and the size of heat pump which itself is determined by the heat loss of the property.  Geowarmth undertake all these calculations.
Dimplex heat_pump_house_horizontal_schematic
Horizontal ground loops
Horizontal ground loops consist of polyethylene pipe laid in trenches or a wider excavation.  The depth is typically around 1 metre.  Loops of around 100m in length can be laid in trenches.  Individual trenches usually need to be 2-3 metres apart to get an excavator between them and provide space for temporarily storing the spoil.  Coiled pipe can also be laid in wider tranches per the photograph above.  These are referred to as slinkies.
Where a body of water is available such as a pond, coils of pipe can be laid just off the bottom of the lake. 
Dimplex heat_pump_house_bore_hole_schematicClosed loop boreholes
Bore holes around 150mm wide are drilled at depths of up to 150 metres and loops of pipe inserted in each borehole which is then filled and sealed with a thermally enhanced grout.  This is a more expensive method than horizontal ground collectors but boreholes can be installed where ground space is more limited and they can be put under a building.  The number of boreholes required varies according to the geology of the area, the heating demands of the property and the size of the ground source heat pump.
Dimplex heat_pump_house_open_loop_schematicOpen loop systems
In an open loop (or water to water) ground source heat pump scheme, ground water is abstracted, usually from an aquifer or possibly from a river and passed through the heat pump before being returned to the ground.  A constant supply of water is needed.  This type of ground source heat pump system is more efficient because of the relatively high temperature of ground water, but the installation can be more complex and require regulatory approval.  Open loop ground source heat pump systems are usually confined to larger commercial buildings rather than domestic properties.
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